Section A
Direction: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

News Report 1
White meat, such as chicken, may raise blood cholesterol levels as much as red meat does. This finding surprised researchers, who admitted they didn’t expect that eating white meat would lead to higher blood cholesterol levels. In the study, researchers looked at 113 healthy people. The participants ate three different diets. These were a red meat diet which is primarily beef, a white meat diet which is mostly chicken and turkey, and a vegetarian protein diet. Each diet period was four weeks. Between the diet periods, participants had a break, during which they ate their regular foods. In addition, participants had blood tests at the start and finish of each new diet. The results showed that white and red meat diets had the same effects on blood cholesterol levels. Further, both diets increased blood cholesterol levels compared with the diet built on vegetarian protein sources. The team acknowledged that it is possible that white meat is better for our health than red meat despite their findings. This is because other effects of red meat consumption could contribute to heart disease independent of cholesterol. Their main recommendations are that people eat less of both kinds of meat and more vegetarian protein.
Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 1: What do we learn from the news report about the study?
Question 2: What did the researchers acknowledge?

A) It examines the effect of cholesterol on people’s health.
B) Its participants all had high blood cholesterol levels.
C) It questions the benefits of a vegetarian protein diet.
D) Its finding came as a surprise to the researchers.

A) They do not know all the effects of eating meat.
B) Red meat itself does not cause heart diseases.
C) White meat may be healthier than red meat.
D) Vegetarian protein may be easier to absorb.

News Report 2
At around half past nine this morning, a trailer attached to a lorry turned over at the crossing of High Street in Milton. Hundreds of frozen turkeys were spilled all over the road. It is reported that nobody was hurt in the incident, but police said it may affect traffic and Christmas dinners. With just one week to go before Christmas, there are worries that local supermarket supplies of this holiday favorite may be affected. A police spokeswoman said that officers were currently in attendance at the scene. She stated that the driver of the lorry had been arrested on suspicion of dangerous driving. The crossing on High Street is a well-known accident blackspot. This year alone, there have been seven traffic accidents at this location. Thankfully, none of these accidents have resulted in serious injury.
Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 3: What does the news report say about the accident at the crossing of High Street in Milton?
Question 4: What do we learn about the crossing on High Street?

A) It may have been due to the lorry driver’s drunk driving.
B) It may affect the local supply of turkeys for Christmas.
C) It interrupted traffic for several hours running.
D) It was caused by a lorry running into a trailer.

A) It has been the scene of several fatal accidents recently.
B) It is the spot that causes the local police a lot of worry.
C) It has witnessed several traffic accidents this year.
D) It is a location frequented by local traffic police.

News Report 3
India launched its helicopter taxi service on Monday, promising to ferry customers the 40 miles between Bangalore’s Electronic City tech hub and the International Airport terminal in 15 minutes. Customers can book their helicopter ride through a mobile app. The service, which claims to be the first of its kind in India, offers only one route, but Bangalore airport will add more once it gets approval. Helicopter taxi is not an affordable option for many travelers. A car ride for the same journey costs less than half as much. But Bangalore airport says it is a competitive alternative to a car ride for tech executives in a hurry. “A large number of high-class travelers, including CEOs, have to spend more than three hours by road to get there — and that is a loss of time,” a Bangalore airport spokesperson said. “This is not a low cost option, but it is an option,” she added. The helicopters ferried around eight customers to the airport on their first day. The company that owns and operates the service is called Thumby Aviation. It previously specialized in private charter flights for government officials.
Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 5: What is Bangalore airport trying to do about the helicopter taxi service?
Question 6: What do we learn from the news report about the helicopter taxi ride?
Question 7: Who are the targeted customers of the helicopter taxi service?

A) Get approval to add more routes.
B) Attract more international tourists.
C) Advertise it through a mobile app.
D) Make it affordable to common folk.

A) It costs more than twice as much as a car ride.
B) It is gaining popularity among ordinary Indians.
C) It symbolizes India’s advancement in high-tech.
D) It can get anywhere in the city within 15 minutes.

A) International tourists.
B) High-class travelers.
C) Prominent superstars.
D) Customers in a hurry.

Section B
Direction: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Conversation 1
W: Hi, I wish to buy some cheese for a barbecue this weekend.
M: What kind would you like?
W: Sorry, I don’t know much about cheese. What type do you think would be suitable for a barbecue?
M: That’s easy! For a barbecue, you could have any cheese you want. I imagine there will be different foods and people will just help themselves and eat at their own pace, right?
W: Yes, exactly. It will be very casual. We will just be a small group of friends gathering together at Washington Park. There will be around 20 of us, including children.
M: Great! So you could have different types of cheese. How much would you like to spend?
W: Not very much. Let’s say $30.
M: I would suggest having at least one soft cheese and one hard cheese. That will offer you a good variety to suit different people’s tastes.
W: That sounds good. What’s the difference between a soft cheese and a hard cheese?
M: Well, it depends. But generally speaking, soft cheeses are creamy and go well with sweet things like honey and jam. I would suggest something like this Spanish goat cheese. It’s only $15, a very good price. You can spread it on bread with a knife, and then add a tiny bit of honey on top. It’s delicious. Children love it.
W: Okay, great. What about a hard cheese?
M: Yes, for hard cheese, I would recommend this Italian one here. It has a very strong smell and a dry flavor. You can cut it into thin slices and eat it on its own. It’s $16.
W: Okay, I’ll take both. Thank you for your help.
Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 8: What does the woman plan to do for the weekend?
Question 9: What does the man suggest the woman do?
Question 10: What does the man say about Spanish Goat Cheese?
Question 11: What is the woman going to do at the end of the conversation?

A) Treat her friends in a bar.
B) Take a trip to Washington.
C) Make some cheese.
D) Throw a party.

A) Spend no more than 30 dollars.
B) Buy different kinds of cheese.
C) Help him prepare the barbecue.
D) Find out different people’s tastes.

A) It is the best kind of hard cheese.
B) It is the most popular in Spain.
C) It is more delicious than honey.
D) It is a good choice for children.

A) Buy what the man recommended.
B) Have a taste of both of the cheeses.
C) Choose one of the two types of cheese.
D) Ask the man to cut the cheese into slices.

Conversation 2
M: Our school is replacing printed textbooks with e-textbooks next semester. I can’t wait.
W: Really? What about the cost, not only buying all those tablets, but the software and electronic infrastructure that goes with it, not to mention retraining all the teachers and administration staff?
M: Sure, the initial expenditure will be high, but much lower afterwards. Besides that, tablet prices continue to drop and are becoming increasingly affordable. Anyway, tablets help students learn up to 80% faster.
W: Not necessarily. Tablets have too many distractions. Students may pay attention to apps, games and websites instead of their teachers. In fact, research suggests that people who read printed text comprehend more, remember more and learn 30% more than those who read digital text.
M: Yes. But tablets contain many technological features that are not found in printed textbooks. Think about it. Students are able to highlight and edit text, write notes and search for information much more quickly than they can with printed textbooks. And what about all those trees that are cut down to make printed books?
W: Actually, manufacturing tablets is environmentally destructive and dangerous to human health. The health impacts from making one electronic reader are 70 times greater than those from making a single printed book. A lot of minerals are extracted from the earth to make electronic readers. It does far more damage to the environment.
M: Yes. But the software for electronic readers can be updated instantly without the need for buying a whole lot of new books. That’s better for the environment.
W: But the core curriculum doesn’t change that much. Printed textbooks that are not brand new, still contain the basic relevant information of core subjects.
M: Well, I’m looking forward to the change.
W: I’ll stick with my printed books.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 12: What does the woman say about using E-textbooks?
Question 13: According to the man, how can the use of tablets benefit students?
Question 14: What does the woman say about students using tablets?
Question 15: What does the woman say about making electronic readers?

A) New teachers and staff have to be recruited.
B) It might take some time for students to adapt.
C) It involves buying lots of tablets and software.
D) The software has to be constantly upgraded.

A) It can greatly improve their learning efficiency.
B) It can help them to interact more with teachers.
C) It can save their trouble of carrying printed books.
D) It can develop their skills in using electronic devices.

A) They may have trouble comprehending texts.
B) They may encounter technological problems.
C) They may pay less respect to teachers.
D) They may get distracted more easily.

A) It generates a great deal of electronic garbage.
B) It does a lot of damage to the environment.
C) It emits huge amounts of harmful radiation.
D) It accelerates the exhaustion of rare minerals.

Section C
Direction: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Passage 1
In social psychology, the term “person perception” refers to the mental processes that we use to form impressions of other people. It includes not just how we form these impressions, but the conclusions we make about other people based on our impressions. Consider how often you make this kind of judgment every day. When you meet with a new coworker, you immediately begin to develop an initial impression of this person. When you visit the grocery store, you might draw conclusions about the cashier who checks you out. Obviously, person perception is a very subjective process that can be affected by a number of variables, including the characteristics of the person you are observing, the context of the situation, your own personal traits, and your past experiences. One of the techniques we use in person perception is social categorization. In this process, we mentally categorize people into different groups based on common characteristics. Problems with this technique include the fact that it can lead to errors and prejudice. Imagine that you are getting on a bus. There are only two seats available. One is next to a small, elderly woman; the other is next to a muscular, fierce-looking man. You sit next to the elderly woman, who unfortunately turns out to be quite skilled at picking pockets. Because of social categorization, you immediately judge the woman as harmless, and the man as threatening, leading to the loss of your wallet.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 16: What does the passage say we tend to do every day?
Question 17: What do we learn about person perception from this passage?
Question 18: What is the problem with using social categorization in person perception?

A) Communicate with our coworkers.
B) Encounter people in different places.
C) Judge people based on our first impressions.
D) Engage in a variety of psychological activities.

A) It is an objective evaluation of a person’s character.
B) It is a mental process influenced by many factors.
C) It contributes to the formation of personal traits.
D) It varies greatly among different social groups.

A) It can lead to incorrect judgments.
B) It can cause mistrust among people.
C) It can result in instant losses.
D) It can give rise to gender bias.

Passage 2
Despite smartphones and social media, young people today are as socially competent as those from the previous generation. At least this is what a new study suggests. For the study, researchers compared teacher and parent evaluations of American children who started kindergarten in 1998, with those who began school in 2010. The former group entered kindergarten when mobile phones were luxuries. The latter group started school when mobile devices were widespread. Results showed both groups of children were rated similarly on important social skills. These included their ability to form and maintain friendships and get along with people who are different. They were also rated similarly on self-control, such as the ability to regulate their temper. In virtually every comparison made, ratings of social skills either remain constant or improved for the children born later. There was one exception: Social skills were slightly lower for children who accessed online games and social networking sites many times a day. Adults are worried when technological change starts to undermine traditional relationships, particularly the parent-child relationship. The introduction of telephones, automobiles and radio all led to moral panic among adults of the time, because the technology allowed children to enjoy more freedom. Fears over screen-based technology represent the most recent panic in response to technological change. But overall, the study found little evidence that time spent on screens was hurting social skills for most children.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 19: What does the news study suggest about young people today and those from the previous generation?
Question 20: What did the study find about children who accessed social networking sites many times a day?
Question 21: What is adults’ worry about technological change?

A) Both groups spend a lot of time on mobile devices.
B) Both groups attach importance to social connections.
C) They are equally competent in using new technology.
D) They are similar in terms of social skills.

A) Their social skills were negatively affected.
B) Their school performance was slightly lower.
C) Their emotions were much harder to regulate.
D) Their relations with peers were badly strained.

A) It may pose a threat to their children’s safety.
B) It may affect society’s traditional values.
C) It may hurt their relations with children.
D) It may change their children’s ethical values.

Passage 3
It’s easy to spend all day searching for inspiration. You can find incredible videos, articles and news stories about the success of others. The problem is that consuming the success and ideas of others is passive inspiration. Every time you read an article or listen to an interview, you’re practicing passive inspiration. You might learn something, but you don’t actually have to do anything. Hearing about other people’s success isn’t the same as creating your own. Instead, it is through the process of active inspiration the act of creating things, applying new ideas to our goals, and making mistakes, that we discover who we are and what is important to us. Furthermore, active inspiration is what results in long-term passion and enthusiasm. Watching someone else’s success might leave you feeling excited for a few minutes. However, taking action and applying a new idea to your life will inspire you more than anything someone else can say. Learning and listening can help you think about things in a different way. But creating, producing, and experimenting is what drives you forward. Passive inspiration can give you ideas, but active inspiration will give you power. Too often we spend our lives consuming the world around us instead of creating it. And what matters is the power your actions have to inspire you. The best inspiration comes from the application of ideas, not the consumption of them.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 22: What does the speaker say about inspiration from consuming others’ ideas and success stories?
Question 23: What do we learn from the passage about active inspiration?
Question 24: What does the passage say passive inspiration can do?
Question 25: Where does the best inspiration come from according to the passage?

A) It is motivating.
B) It is passive.
C) It is incredible.
D) It is impracticable.

A) It results in short-term excitement.
B) It helps us avoid making mistakes.
C) It breeds long-term passion and enthusiasm.
D) It is bound to help us achieve greater success.

A) Drive us forward.
B) Bring us power.
C) Spur us to action.
D) Give us ideas.

A) Listening to success stories.
B) Applying ideas to one’s life.
C) Following the advice of experts.
D) Consuming the world around us.




Section A
Direction: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through the centre.

Conversation 1
M: How’s your dissertation going? I’m proofreading my first draft and will submit it to my professor tomorrow.
W: Oh, I haven’t even started writing mine yet. So I’m really worried about finishing by the end of next semester.
M: You mean you haven’t even begun yours yet? The final draft is due in five months.
W: Of course I’ve started it, but I can’t get to the writing yet as I haven’t found enough resources to use. So I’m still researching the topic.
M: Maybe the problem is the way you’re doing your research. I started by talking to my professor about where to look for information. And based on that, I found books in the library and a lot of reputable journal articles on the Internet.
W: I’ve tried all that, but don’t have enough to write the dissertation as my department’s minimum length is 70 pages. I think the problem is that my topic isn’t viable. And honestly, my professor did warn me at the beginning that I might not be able to find enough material. But I was so interested in the topic that I didn’t let his advice deter me.
M: Well, I suggest you find a new topic. After all, our professors are here to guide us, so it’s best to listen to them.
W: In retrospect, I wish I had listened to him, but I didn’t. And now I don’t want to give up my topic as I’ve already invested so much time and energy.
M: If you’re committed to your current topic, maybe you could make some adjustments rather than abandoning it completely. What is your topic?
W: It’s “Depictions of Femininity in Folklore from the South of the Country”.
M: That’s pretty narrow. You could find more material if you made the topic broader, maybe by including other kinds of depictions.
W: Broadening the topic is a great idea. I’ll start by including folklore from other regions of the country.
Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 1: What does the woman say about her dissertation?
Question 2: What does the man say about his professor?
Question 3: What does the woman say about her professor?
Question 4: What do we learn the woman will do to complete her dissertation?

A) She hasn’t started writing it.
B) She hasn’t decided on a topic.
C) She is proofreading the first draft.
D) She is working on the references.

A) He lent many books to the man for reference.
B) He offered the man advice on resource hunting.
C) He published a lot in a number of reputable journals.
D) He told the man to be selective when using e-resources.

A) He didn’t think her dissertation topic viable.
B) He wasn’t interested in her dissertation topic.
C) He didn’t want her to rush through her dissertation.
D) He wasn’t specific about the length of her dissertation.

A) Change her research methodology.
B) Narrow down her dissertation topic.
C) Consult her professor more.
D) Follow the man’s advice.

Conversation 2
W: Today on Book Talk, we’re lucky enough to host John Robbins and discuss his new book, Why Americans Are Fat and How We Can Lose Weight. John isn’t just a respected writer, he’s also one of the rare celebrity authors writing about science today.
M: Thanks for having me, Rebecca, but I’m hardly a celebrity.
W: That’s very modest of you to say, considering that your four books have sold a total of 7 million copies worldwide, and they’ve been translated into 12 different languages. What makes people so fascinated with your work?
M: Well, people read my books because more than 60% of Americans are overweight or obese, and other countries are facing similar problems. Basically, we all want to know how to fix things.
W: We certainly do. I’ve read your new book, and it’s fabulous, especially when it comes to the way you make difficult science easy for laymen to understand. That’s no small achievement.
M: I’m glad to hear you find my work accessible, because I was worried when I wrote it that discussing the science might make the book more suited for a specialist audience. My last book was written primarily for the medical community. But this time, I want to help ordinary people take control of their weight.
W: And how do you suggest they do that? Can you give us the basics of your advice for people who want to lose weight?
M: Briefly, I argue that every person needs to consider their metabolism and eat what suits their body’s needs. I don’t advocate one single diet. Some people should eat more carbohydrates than others. And different people need different amounts of protein and fat.
W: But you do have some recommendations for everyone, including eating ten servings of vegetables and three of fruit a day. We’ll talk about those recommendations next, but now we need to take a short break for a message from our sponsor.
Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 5: What does the woman say about the man in her introduction?
Question 6: What has motivated the man to write his books?
Question 7: Who does the man say his last book was mainly written for?
Question 8: What does the man recommend people do?

A) He has translated 12 books.
B) He is a well-known nutritionist.
C) His books sell well worldwide.
D) His latest book sold a million copies.

A) The desire of Americans to try exotic cuisines.
B) The demand for information about food safety.
C) The fact that over half of Americans are overweight.
D) The fact that science books are difficult to read.

A) The general public.
B) Those who are overweight.
C) Those who want to lose weight.
D) The medical community.

A) Switch to a vegetarian diet.
B) Follow a personalized diet.
C) Adhere to doctors’ advice.
D) Cut carbohydrate intake.

Section B
Direction: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Passage 1
Stress is often depicted as negative, but research shows that moderate amounts of it can be beneficial for your brain and your body. First, the benefits for the brain. Studies have shown that short periods of stress can actually bolster cognitive functioning. Researchers discovered that placing rats in a stressful situation for just a few hours doubled the growth of new brain cells. The rats also did better on a memory test later on. Scientists think the same thing happens in humans. But how does stress improve memory? It’s simple. When your brain cells multiply, your memory can improve. Viewed from a biological perspective, this makes sense because animals that are better at remembering dangerous situations can avoid them in the future. If an animal encounters a predator and escapes, for example, it’s important to remember where and when that encounter happened. Experts assert that the same principle applies to humans. Now, let’s turn to how stress benefits the body. This may come as a surprise to laymen, but experts say that stress can keep you from getting sick. Scientists concede that chronic stress can make you more prone to illness, but research shows that short periods of stress can actually provide some protection against getting sick because it increases your immune functioning. One study shows that rats that experienced brief stress had a surge of immune cell response, which makes the immune system better prepared to fight illness. For humans, there’s even evidence that experiencing stress before getting vaccinated could help make vaccines more effective.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 9: What did researchers discover about rats placed briefly in a stressful situation?
Question 10: Why do people tend to have clearer memories of dangerous situations they have encountered?
Question 11: What do scientists believe chronic stress can do?

A) The rate of their growth increased dramatically.
B) The growth of their new brain cells doubled.
C) They began to show signs of depression.
D) They began to get irritated and restless.

A) To avoid them in the future.
B) To warn others against them.
C) To make good sense of them.
D) To reflect on their causes.

A) Produce a surprising healing effect.
B) Weaken one’s immunity in the long run.
C) Make people more susceptible to illness.
D) Provide protection against mental illnesses.

Passage 2
For many managers and people who work in leadership positions, dealing with emails is a dilemma. It’s likely the unpredictable, uncontrollable and ongoing nature of day-to-day email in terms of volume, importance and urgency contributes to their levels of anxiety and to diminished leadership skills. That’s because it’s not unusual for many leaders to prioritize email management over people management. An obsession with managing their inbox prevents them from dealing with their employees. As a result, they ignore the issues that might only be mild problems at first, until unfortunately, they inevitably transform into a major problem or crisis by virtue of neglect. As leaders, they are expected to motivate and inspire their team in pursuit of longer-term strategic goals and also, less ambitiously but more practically, to monitor their daily output to set clear expectations and to give regular feedback. When presented with a choice between the appeal of their inbox and other more important activities, many sacrifice the latter. Daily email demands have a negative impact on their goal progress. This is because leaders must divert resources from other tasks to check, filter and respond to emails. The solution is cultivating self-control which is like a muscle. It can be strengthened or improved over time through exercise. Some suggestions include: making space in your diary for the only period during which you will be checking emails; setting a timer for yourself so you don’t become distracted by your inbox for too long; turning off email alerts so you’re not interrupted by them.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 12: What does the speaker say is a common problem with managers?
Question 13: What may happen when managers ignore minor problems?
Question 14: What are leaders expected to do in pursuing their strategic goals?
Question 15: How can a manager best avoid being distracted by email?

A) Placing their own interests over their staff’s.
B) Being overwhelmed by their daily routines.
C) Lacking the ability to relate to their staff.
D) Spending too much time handling email.

A) Their leadership may be challenged.
B) Their companies may go bankrupt.
C) Unexpected events may occur.
D) Major problems may result.

A) Keep an eye on their employees.
B) Motivate and inspire their team.
C) Sacrifice some of the immediate goals.
D) Have greater ambition in overall planning.

A) Cultivate self-control.
B) Filter their email boxes.
C) Respond only after work.
D) Check only when necessary.

Section C
Direction: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Recording 1
In last week’s lecture, we talked about the problems caused by poor eating habits, focusing on how medical professionals are trying to solve these problems. Today, we’ll continue with the topic, but focus on research from a different field — marketing. Now, what can marketing tell us about improving nutrition? Well, a team of marketing professors has studied the importance of the visual aspect of food and how that influences food choices. Those marketing experts assert that the impact of the appearance of food is greater than we might presume, and might hold the key to encouraging better eating. So how important is the appearance of food? Research shows that just seeing an appealing photograph of a hamburger in an advertisement, for example, can cause individuals to imagine the taste or smell of that hamburger. This can make them more likely to purchase and consume it. Of course, that’s the point of advertisements. So isn’t that a good thing? Well, the marketing professors argue that this is actually a problem because the combination of pleasing aesthetics of and easy access to unhealthy foods, such as hamburgers and pizza, may be contributing to a worldwide health crisis. In fact, statistics show that 39% of all adults in the world weigh too much, and another 13% are obese. Now, as we discussed last time, medical professionals have tried to fight the obesity epidemic by focusing on the nutrients found in different foods, emphasizing things like carbohydrate, fat, sugar and calorie content. But they’ve had limited success. The marketing professors believe that the real solution to obesity is making food look appealing and focusing on the pleasure of both looking at and eating that food. That pleasure can be used as a tool to promote healthy food choices. In fact, the research done by the team showed that associating healthy food with pleasant images, experiences and emotions led to greater interest in purchasing or eating. “This is a better strategy,” they claim, “than reminding consumers that a certain food is good for them.” But are they right? Well, the researchers cited a marketing campaign designed to reverse the sales decline of carrots. The campaign didn’t emphasize the carrots’ healthy qualities, but embrace their beauty and the pleasure derived from eating them. For example, the ads focused on the bright, beautiful orange color and crisp texture of the carrots. The campaign led to an impressive increase in product sales of more than 10%. The researchers believe that other companies could bolster sales of healthy foods with similar ads, depicting their products as attractive and a source of pleasure.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 16: What does the speaker say a team of marketing professors has studied?
Question 17: How have medical professionals tried to fight obesity?
Question 18: What can other companies learn from the example of the carrot promotion campaign?

A) The key to increasing healthy food supply.
B) The best way to improve marketing research.
C) The impact of advertisements on consumption.
D) The importance of the appearance of food.

A) By focusing on the nutrients in different foods.
B) By emphasizing the diversity of food.
C) By stressing pleasing aesthetics of food.
D) By winning the support of marketing professors.

A) They can attract customers with the healthy qualities of their products.
B) They can boost sales of healthy foods by making them visually appealing.
C) They can turn to marketing professors for advice.
D) They can rely on advertising for sales promotion.

Recording 2
The household cleaning products industry really began to take off in the 1950s. Prior to that, resourceful housewives who had grown up in a less prosperous era relied on substances that they used in their kitchens such as vinegar used to clean windows. Today, the household cleaning products industry is worth billions of dollars a year and is dominated by large global companies. In recent years, however, many countries have witnessed a surge in the number of small businesses and companies offering more environment-friendly cleaning products. And they’re doing good business, too. One reason for this is that consumers are becoming more aware of environment and sustainability issues. They also want to make their home a safe place, free from toxic chemicals. The third reason is people’s awareness of and knowledge about technology has never been greater. In the past, people might have been skeptical of a new product claimed to be able to achieve amazing cleaning results, but they now have faith in technology’s ability to do what was once thought impossible. There is perhaps no better example of this than a patented cloth sold by one company, which remarkably uses only water rather than traditional cleaning products. The company claims its cloth lifts, traps, and removes dirt and bacteria. And considering that people don’t see these products in shops, or advertised on TV, or in the press, it has been a pretty steep rise. Many of the people behind these companies began testing the viability of their products by selling them at local markets. Then, in many cases, customers are doing the marketing for these product by leaving threads of comments on social media, praising their virtues. There are also TV shows and books dedicated to maintaining home tidiness and cleanliness and the benefits of having a clean home. Having a safe and clean home might be one thing people feel they can control in an increasingly out-of-control world. And there are social media celebrities. One woman in Britain has become a social media sensation with more than 2 million followers for her cleaning tips page.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 19: What does the speaker say about the cleaning products industry in recent years?
Question 20: Why are newly developed cleaning products selling well?
Question 21: What are some customers doing to help promote non-traditional cleaning products?

A) It has witnessed a spectacular surge in demand.
B) It has met much criticism from environmentalists.
C) It has seen more small businesses offering environment-friendly products.
D) It has experienced increasingly fierce competition among global companies.

A) Consumers now know much more about technology.
B) Their mass production has sharply reduced the price.
C) Consumers tend to favor all that is novel.
D) Their quality has been greatly improved.

A) Purchasing only this kind of products for home cleaning.
B) Writing positive comments about them on social media.
C) Demonstrating on TV how effective these products are.
D) Telling one another about their incomparable virtues.

Recording 3
Throwing spare change into a fountain is a time-honored ritual: throw a penny into the water, and your wish might come true. But all that money has to go somewhere. Otherwise, the growing piles of pennies, quarters and euros could clog up the fountain’s works. Today I’m going to talk about where all the coins go. Well, the coins collected can go to all sorts of different places — from fountain maintenance to charity or public service. In New York City, for example, coins collected from fountains in public parks often go towards the fountain’s maintenance itself, though entrepreneurs who don’t mind getting their hands wet often get to it first. There are over 50 beautiful, decorative display fountains in New York City parks. They are cleaned by the park’s staff every few weeks, but most of the coins have already been removed by entrepreneurial New Yorkers and there is not a significant amount left to be collected. Other cities, though, can pull in a much more serious haul. Take for example, Rome’s famous Trevi Fountain: for hundreds of years, visitors have thrown coins over their shoulder into the fountain to ensure that they will return. So many tourists toss in coins that Roman officials have the fountain cleaned every night, reportedly getting as much as $4,000 in loose change from around the world each day. Most of the money collected each night goes towards running a supermarket for the needy. And collecting that cash is serious business. Roman officials have been known to be tough on anyone caught skimming coins from the fountain. In one case in 2005, police arrested four fountain cleaners after they were spotted slipping coins into their own pockets after collecting them. Authorities finally caught one notorious thief named Thomas Morgan and banned him from the fountain after he fished out thousands of dollars in change over 34 years using a magnetic stick. For the most part, money collected from privately-owned fountains in the United States also goes to charity. The fountain in New York City’s Bryant Park is owned and operated by a not-for-profit corporation, which puts the cash collected by cleaners towards the fountain’s own maintenance. Tens of thousands of dollars in coins removed from wishing wells, fountains and ponds in Florida’s Walt Disney World are donated each year to support foster children living in the state. Whether or not your wish comes true after tossing a coin into a fountain, you can rest assured knowing that the change is likely going to someone who needs it.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 22: What problem might be caused by the growing piles of coins in fountains?
Question 23: What does the speaker say about the coins collected from New York City’s Park fountains?
Question 24: What do we learn about the money collected from Rome’s Trevi Fountain?
Question 25: What does the speaker say about Thomas Morgan?

A) Increasing cleaners’ workload.
B) Blocking the fountains’ works.
C) Breaking a time-honored ritual.
D) Polluting the fountains’ water.

A) They are occasionally retrieved by curious tourists.
B) They are regularly donated to charity organizations.
C) They are mostly used for the fountains’ maintenance.
D) They are usually used as wages for fountain cleaners.

A) It is invested in a series of businesses.
B) It is used exclusively for its maintenance.
C) It is used to run a supermarket for the needy.
D) It is estimated to be about $40,000 a month.

A) He was arrested for stealing money from four fountain cleaners.
B) He was sentenced to 34 years’ imprisonment.
C) He collected rare coins from around the world.
D) He stole a lot of money from a fountain with a magnetic stick.




Section A
Direction: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

News Report 1
Operations at one of Australia’s largest gold mines had to be temporarily suspended on Friday after a partial wall collapse at one of the mine’s dams. The wall collapse at the Cadia mine came just a few days after two earthquakes hit the area. The damage to the dam wall was noticed in the late afternoon on Friday when workers found a section of the northern dam wall had collapsed into the southern dam. The dams contain waste products of mining and can contain materials which are harmful to the environment and human health. The dams are generally constructed using earth-fill and are gradually raised over time. The company was unable to confirm whether the recent earthquakes had contributed to the dam’s wall collapse, but said it was conducting a thorough investigation. A company spokesperson said the operations at the site had been halted while the investigation is ongoing and that the break had posed no safety threat to workers.
Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 1: What happened at one of Australia’s largest gold mines?
Question 2: What did the spokesperson say about the incident?

A) Part of its dam wall collapsed.
B) It released a lot of harmful gases.
C) It was destroyed by an earthquake.
D) Some miners were trapped underground.

A) It posed a safety threat to the miners.
B) It caused damage too heavy to assess.
C) It brought the mine’s operations to a halt.
D) It was followed by two more earthquakes.

News Report 2
Two boys and four girls were born on Monday to the surprise of a young couple and doctors who had expected five babies. This was the first record of six babies being born at the same time in that region. The doctors prepared from early in the morning to help deliver five tiny citizens. They were in the operating room with five teams of doctors, one for each baby. The first five babies were delivered successfully, and all baby beds were occupied. And then all of a sudden, it turned out there was another waiting to come out. The doctor said the babies were in healthy condition, but could not go home immediately. They needed to stay in the hospital for two to three months for medical supervision. The mother who is in stable condition could return home a day later if all physical tests came back normal. The babies’ mother commented that they had already prepared room for five babies at home, so they will have to rearrange things for their happy surprise. The new parents have yet to name the sixth baby but are considering either Lily or Rose.
Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 3: What did the hospital do for the delivery of the babies?
Question 4: What did the doctor say about the newborns?

A) It prepared beds for all the six new citizens.
B) It assigned a team of doctors for each expected baby.
C) It made ample preparations for various possibilities.
D) It brought in the most advanced instruments.

A) They had to undergo 2-3 physical checkups.
B) They were all of normal size except the sixth.
C) They could go home together with their mother a day later.
D) They needed to stay in the hospital for a couple of months.

News Report 3
A Spanish island called Palmador has been bought by a family from Europe for 18 million euros. The island is often described as heaven on earth by holidaymakers. For decades tourists have been flocking to Palmador, which is located off the southeast coast of Spain. They come to enjoy its unspoiled beaches and crystal clear waters. Its natural beauty is protected as it lies inside a natural park. Although Palmador is one of the most famous private islands in the world, its seafront is public land and is a favorite destination for famous people. When the island was put up for sale, it was offered to the local government but proved too expensive for the local authorities. It is unclear whether the new owners have the power to ban tourists from the island. But with their newfound luxury comes the responsibility for its protection and maintenance. The island is less than two miles long and half a mile wide. It is said to have a remarkable location that few other private islands of this size can match, according to estate agents. Palmador is the perfect place to retreat to, somewhere to get away from the city noise and relax in beautiful surroundings with zero stress.
Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 5: What do we learn from the news report about the Spanish island Palmador?
Question 6: What do holidaymakers come to Palmador to enjoy?
Question 7: What do estate agents say about Palmador?

A) It is owned by the local government.
B) It has been turned into a public park.
C) It has been bought by an American.
D) It is a perfect tourist destination.

A) Its seafood.
B) Its unusual coastline.
C) Its unspoiled beaches.
D) Its architecture.

A) It has an unmatched location.
B) It is worth over 18 million euros.
C) It has beautiful weather all year round.
D) It is an ideal place to meet famous stars.

Section B
Direction: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Conversation 1
M: Hi, Christie’s Gym Center. How can I help you?
W: Hi, I’m calling to ask about the newly scheduled gym classes. I’m just wondering if I can get a discount on them.
M: Are you already a member?
W: Yes, I signed up two months ago, but I haven’t been to any of the group classes yet.
M: Can I take your name please?
W: Yes. My name is Carol Friedman.
M: Carol Friedman. That’s right. And you signed up two months ago. Currently we are offering existing members discounts off two of our brand new classes, hot yoga, and advanced spinning, but the discount doesn’t apply to any of our regular classes I’m afraid.
W: I’m only interested in the new classes. So how much of a discount is there on these two new classes?
M: The same discount of 20% is being offered to everyone at the door on a “first come, first served” basis for the first month. It’s a shame you missed out on the general discount.
W: I see.
M: But you can get 25% off if you sign up in advance. Which of the two classes are you thinking about?
W: Well, I guess I am only really interested in hot yoga. Can you sign me up for the 10-week course on Thursday evenings?
M: Sure. Would you prefer to pay in advance?
W: No, I don’t like giving my card details over the phone anyway.
M: Okay, then. As you are already a member, the fee of the class will just be added to your monthly bill.
W: That’s perfect. Thanks for your help.
M: See you Thursday.
Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 8: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?
Question 9: What is the gym center doing right now?
Question 10: What does the man say is a pity for the woman?
Question 11: Why is the woman unwilling to pay in advance?

A) She has been attending some group classes.
B) She has registered for two new gym classes.
C) She became a member of the gym two months ago.
D) She is entitled to a discount on all the gym exercises.

A) Considering the promotion of its regular classes.
B) Taking measures to expand its exercise programs.
C) Recruiting coaches for hot yoga and advanced spinning.
D) Offering existing members a discount off two new classes.

A) She missed the deadline for the 10-week course.
B) She missed out on the gym’s general discount.
C) She didn’t sign up for membership in time.
D) She wasn’t so much interested in hot yoga.

A) She doesn’t want to reveal her card details over the phone.
B) She doesn’t think it wise to pay before attending any class.
C) She might have to cancel her registration any minute.
D) She prefers to have the fee added to her monthly bill.

Conversation 2
M: Well, I think that was quite a successful trip in the end. Don’t you think, Jenny?
W: Absolutely. There are lots of great potential markets here in China. So I’m sure that the head office in London will be pleased once we get back and present our research.
M: Okay. We’ve got a bit of spare time now. Can we discuss the return trip to the head office?
W: Sure. I’ve checked the availability of flights from Beijing to London on the 22nd and you have a choice. There’s a flight arriving the following morning, with a two-hour stopover in Dubai, or a flight arriving at 11:30 in the evening, with a five-hour stopover in Amsterdam.
M: Right. Well, that’s obvious then, isn’t it?
W: Okay, so that’s Dubai. I’ve booked a room in a hotel about a mile from the office. The nearest metro station is Earl’s Court.
M: Great. Can you find a map that shows where the hotel is and send it to me online? I’ve never been to the head office, you know. I want to see if I can get one of those rental bicycles and ride to the office just for fun. For the presentation, I’ll bring my own laptop and hook it up to their projector. Do you remember the capacity of their meeting room?
W: No, but I’ll check.
M: Just one more thing. I’ll pay everything with my own card, right? And I’ll submit my claims form afterwards.
W: No problem. Just remember to keep all your receipts. You remember the trouble you had last time.
M: Oh, don’t remind me.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 12: Why are the speakers in China?
Question 13: Where will the man stop over on his way to London?
Question 14: What does the man ask the woman to do?
Question 15: What did the woman remind the man to do at the end of the conversation?

A) To make investments.
B) To sign a business contract.
C) To research new markets.
D) To open a new office.

A) Dubai.
B) Beijing.
C) Amsterdam.
D) Earl’s Court.

A) Rent a bike for him to get around the town.
B) Reserve a meeting room in the head office.
C) Help him prepare his presentation.
D) Send him a map of the hotel area.

A) Bring his projector.
B) Keep all his receipts.
C) Submit his claims form.
D) Pay with his credit card.

Section C
Direction: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Passage 1
A new study has demonstrated the importance of women’s rights. The researchers behind the study state that many parts of the world have made good economic progress, but women’s rights are often overlooked. Thus, they wanted to determine if there was a link between protection of women’s rights and public health. The researchers analyzed databases which held information from 162 countries for the period 2004 to 2010. Countries were classified according to the respect they gave to women’s economic and social rights. There were three categories. They were high, moderate, and poor. Analysis of the data showed that countries with strong women’s rights had better health than those where women’s rights were not as respected. The health indicators studied included disease prevention, reproductive health, death rates, and life expectancy. Furthermore, in countries where women’s rights were most respected, but where access to hospitals and doctors was below average, health outcomes were still better than in countries rated as moderate or poor. This confirms that even with a lack of resources, if a country has strong women’s rights, the health outcomes are better. Thus, the researchers argued that gender equality is not just a women’s rights issue. It is also a development issue. This is because better health aids economic development. They note that the value of women’s rights has often been questioned from an economic standpoint. Some have argued that ensuring those rights would limit progress, but this study indicates the opposite.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 16: What did the researchers of the new study try to determine?
Question 17: What does the passage say about countries lacking in medical resources?
Question 18: What has often been questioned regarding women’s rights?

A) Whether a country’s educational level is linked to women’s rights.
B) Whether women’s rights are making good progress around the world.
C) Whether a country’s protection of women’s rights is related to its public health.
D) Whether women’s rights are more often overlooked in less-developed countries.

A) Their people still have better health if women’s rights are respected.
B) They must make efforts to increase women’s access to health care.
C) Their people tend to attach importance to women’s rights.
D) They need to invest more in hospital staff and facilities.

A) Their link with a country’s public health.
B) Their potential impact on social progress.
C) Their value to a country’s international image.
D) Their positive effect on economic development.

Passage 2
Sunshine and high temperatures can mean picnics and parks and trips to beaches, but they can make your body react in some strange ways. First, sunshine can actually affect your breath. You may think that summer is the perfect time to go on a date or chat with an attractive boy or girl. But excessive heat can cause you to lose water, which has been proven to have a pretty unattractive side effect — bad breath. When you are lacking water, your mouth becomes dry. Bacteria accumulate because there isn’t enough water in your mouth to wash it away. Sunshine can stop you from sweating, too. The body’s normal temperature is 36 to 37 degrees centigrade. But if it heats up to 40 to 41 degrees, you may find yourself getting heatstroke. At that point, your heat regulatory system can essentially quit, which stops you from sweating as your body tries to keep water around your vital organs. However, the sun can have a positive influence on your body by raising your energy levels. You might feel like the sun is giving you extra energy for your day, which is actually happening. And vitamin D from sunshine can help your body to absorb certain minerals, which are linked to building stronger bones. Therefore, I suggest you spend more time in the park with your friends, but make sure you apply lots of skin protection and fill up those water bottles, too.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 19: What does the passage say about hot sunshine?
Question 20: What does the passage say is a negative side effect of water loss?
Question 21: What is said to be a positive effect of sunshine?

A) It creates a wonderful setting for dating.
B) It may cause strange physical reactions.
C) It turns parks into picnic sites.
D) It may result in a crowded beach.

A) Breathing difficulty.
B) Bad breath.
C) Excessive sweating.
D) High blood pressure.

A) It protects people against bacteria.
B) It enables people to build up endurance.
C) It accelerates people’s blood circulation.
D) It provides people with extra energy.

Passage 3
Left-handed people can find it inconvenient to do certain things, writing in a notebook for example, but there are a number of advantages of being left-handed. Research found that they were overrepresented among fighters in combat sports. Left-handed fighters also had higher chances to win. This confirms the fighter theory. Left-handers may also be better at remembering events. The explanation is that the two brain spheres of left-handers are more strongly connected. Being left-handed might be a factor in mathematical ability. An Italian study found that for simple arithmetic there was little difference between right and left-handed performance, but for more difficult problem-solving, left-handers won out. No one understands the reason for this. Left-handed people may think differently. In one study, researchers showed the participants columns of abstract illustrations and asked them which ones they would prefer. Left-handed people were more likely to prefer the images on the left. Right-handed people preferred the ones on the right. Both groups disliked stuff on their opposite side. Left-handers are also overrepresented in professional, interactive sports. Researchers have looked at the influence of being left-handed on performance and interactive sports. Those that require the fastest reaction give left-handers the biggest advantage. So if you have a left-handed child, you should encourage them to play table tennis, baseball and tennis. Being left-handed maximizes their chances of success in these sports.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 22: What does the passage say about left-handed people?
Question 23: What is said to be special about left-handed people?
Question 24: Why are left-handed people better at solving more difficult problems?
Question 25: What should parents do about a left-handed child?

A) They are more likely to win in combat sports.
B) They are in the minority among the population.
C) They have a higher chance of joining sports teams.
D) They have more disadvantages in getting ahead.

A) Their brain is more powerful than that of right-handed people.
B) The left side of their brain is more powerful than its right side.
C) They tend to be a lot more aggressive than right-handed people.
D) Their brain has a stronger connection between its two sides.

A) They have a larger brain.
B) It still remains unknown.
C) It is related to their genes.
D) They are better at reasoning.

A) Teach them how to perform tasks with their right hand.
B) Help them fully develop their mathematical abilities.
C) Encourage them to play fast-paced interactive sports.
D) Advise them to choose jobs that require quick reactions.




Section A
Direction: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through the centre.

Conversation 1
M: Welcome to the Book Club. Today’s guest is Susan Lane, the author of a new book on personal finances that has already sold half a million copies. Hi, Susan, your book is extremely successful. Why do you think that is?
W: I think that’s because of my message, which is making happiness a priority over money. So many of us in my generation have spent decades trying to earn more money just to consume more, but it made us more miserable.
M: You yourself were once caught in that cycle, working for two decades as an executive and earning a high salary, but still accumulating debt.
W: I most certainly was. I earned millions, but by the time I quit my job four years ago to become a writer, I owed over $30,000.
M: So how did you escape that pattern? And what would you advise other people to do?
W: The first change is in what we value. We need to emphasize things that actually make us happy, like relationships, the environment or even our hobbies. Once we make the right things our priority, our goals will change and so will our financial behavior.
M: How does that translate into practical action? Can you give our audience examples of what you’re talking about on an everyday basis?
W: The major areas for action are usually housing, food and transportation. So, people might share a home with friends instead of living on their own, bring lunch from home instead of going to restaurants, and use public transport instead of owning a car.
M: Those sound like major sacrifices. I could never share my home. I need my own space.
W: But they aren’t sacrifices. When people change their values, their desires change. So, in the example of housing, if we value relationships, sharing a home isn’t depriving ourselves of space but giving us an opportunity to spend more time with our loved ones.
M: Indeed it is.
Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 1: What message does the woman convey in her book?
Question 2: What do we learn about the woman before she became a writer?
Question 3: What does the woman say about one’s financial behavior?
Question 4: What does the man say about sharing a home?

A) Prioritizing happiness over money.
B) Joining the club to get her new book.
C) Managing one’s personal finances wisely.
D) Consuming more only when earning more.

A) She was in debt.
B) She was a financial adviser.
C) She earned $30,000 a month.
D) She enjoyed a happy life.

A) It reflects one’s earning power.
B) It varies with one’s environment.
C) It mirrors one’s sense of wellbeing.
D) It changes with one’s goals in life.

A) It would give him more time to be with his loved ones.
B) It would be good for those who value relationships.
C) It would mean major sacrifices for him.
D) It would deprive him of his individuality.

Conversation 2
W: Thank you for inviting me to the gallery, Christopher. I haven’t visited here since your predecessor’s retirement functioned.
M: Would you like to see the newest additions to our collection first, Catherine?
W: Are those the landscapes by Danielle Gregory? I absolutely adore her work.
M: This first piece was a gift to the gallery from the artist herself, and it’s quite exquisite.
W: I love how she depicts the barren landscape. The colours complement each other perfectly.
M: You can sense the desolation in the picture. This piece was inspired by Gregory’s recent trek in the Gobi Desert.
W: And how did you obtain her other piece over here?
M: It was purchased at auction by an anonymous collector who lent it to the gallery for display. This composition is one of her most acclaimed paintings.
W: It must have cost that collector a small fortune to purchase this.
M: Obviously, I can’t disclose the exact amount he paid, but it was substantial.
W: There’s so much detail in this painting. I feel like I can really immerse myself in the scene. I particularly like the symmetry created by the reflection of the mountain in the lake.
M: This particular piece was the one that was nominated for a Gateway Award. I was lucky enough to attend the award ceremony as Gregory’s guest.
W: So you know her personally. I assume she’s an eccentric artist.
M: Quite the opposite. In fact, she’s not at all eccentric. I would say she’s one of the most easygoing and intelligent people I know.
W: I’d love to be able to meet her. There are so many questions I’d like to ask.
M: What a coincidence! I’m meeting her for dinner tonight. Would you like to come along?
W: I’d love to. Thank you.
Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 5: What do we learn about one of the newest additions to the gallery’s collection?
Question 6: What does the man say about one of the most acclaimed paintings by Danielle Gregory?
Question 7: Why does the woman say she can feel immersed in the scene in the painting?
Question 8: How does the man describe Danielle Gregory?

A) It was the artist’s first landscape.
B) It was a painting by Christopher.
C) It was donated by the artist herself.
D) It was displayed at a retirement party.

A) It was the painting that instantly made her rich.
B) It has cost him a lot of money to purchase it.
C) It was recently purchased by the gallery.
D) It is owned by an anonymous collector.

A) It reflects her emotions.
B) It contains ample details.
C) It appears perfectly symmetrical.
D) It depicts the beauty of desolation.

A) She is eccentric like any other artist.
B) She is a very nice and intelligent artist.
C) She is as lucky as any acclaimed artist.
D) She is one of the most productive artists.

Section B
Direction: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Passage 1
Forgiveness is the release of resentment or anger. Forgiveness doesn’t mean reconciliation. We don’t have to return to the same relationship, nor do we have to accept the same harmful behaviors from an offender. Forgiveness is vitally important for the mental health of certain victims. It propels people forward rather than keeping them emotionally engaged in an injustice or trauma. Carrying the hurt or anger of an offense leads the body to release stress chemicals. Eliminating the perpetual flow of those chemicals may also explain why forgiveness provides physical health benefits. There are scenarios in which forgiveness is not the best course. Sometimes the victim becomes more empowered when they give themselves permission not to forgive. Forgiveness can be challenging. This is especially true when the offending party offers an insincere apology, or maybe they haven’t offered anything at all. However, it’s often the healthiest path forward. It’s important to cultivate forgiveness by developing compassion for the offender, reflect on whether the act was due to malicious intent or whether it was caused by challenging circumstances in the offender’s life. What about forgiving ourselves? We sometimes need to take responsibility for mistakes, but intense guilt and shame aren’t a desirable outcome in the long run. Forgiving yourself may seem like an ambiguous process. You can begin by acknowledging that you are at fault. Take responsibility for the hurt you caused, then reflect on why the event occurred. Draw the lessons you learned and try to avoid committing a similar offense in the future.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 9: What does the passage say about forgiveness?
Question 10: When is forgiveness especially challenging?
Question 11: What should one do in order to forgive the offender?

A) It is vital to one’s mental health.
B) It leads to reconciliation and peace.
C) It promotes interpersonal relationship.
D) It keeps one from traumatic experience.

A) When the offender has power over the victim.
B) When the offender is not willing to apologize.
C) When the offender is not duly penalized.
D) When the offender adds insult to injury.

A) Talk with the offender calmly.
B) Accept the offender’s apology.
C) Find out why he committed the offense.
D) Determine how serious the offense was.

Passage 2
The Glasgow subway first opened in 1896 as a cable-hauled system. It is generally recognized as the world’s third underground railway after London and Budapest. In its long history, it has never been expanded, remaining as a single loop line with a mere 15 stations. At its peak, it served the shipyard workers on the south side of the city. In the 1960s, there was a decline in the shipbuilding industry, and the popularity of private transport grew. As a result, the subway saw a rapid decline in ridership. It ran with little further change until 1977 when its new operators closed it for major modernization investment. Carriages were replaced, ventilation was improved, and the main depot was also renovated and fitted with connecting tracks to replace the outdated crane transfer mechanism. The subway in its present form reopened for operation in April 1980. Since its relaunch, the subway has seen a revival in its fortunes. It serves as a viable alternative to other forms of transport and has gone a long way to alleviate traffic jams in the city centre. In 1996, the system reached an important milestone — 100 years. To commemorate this special event, the colour scheme of the train carriages was updated. Recently, high-tech systems such as smartcard ticketing machines and smart gates are used across all subway stations. The smartcard provides more convenient travel, and passengers simply top up their cards and tap them to get in and out the subway. Since its launch, the technology has been adopted by more than 100,000 subway customers.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 12: What does the passage say about the Glasgow subway in the 1960s?
Question 13: Why was the Glasgow subway closed in 1977?
Question 14: Why does the Glasgow subway remain important today?
Question 15: What does the passage say about all subway stations in Glasgow nowadays?

A) The number of passengers dropped sharply.
B) It served more and more commuters.
C) The number of stations increased to 50.
D) It became the longest in the United Kingdom.

A) To increase capacity to meet growing needs.
B) To make way for other means of transport.
C) To have its systems modernised.
D) To avoid further financial losses.

A) It is generally recognised as a world heritage site.
B) It is the fastest way to reach the city’s south side.
C) It constitutes a source of revenue for the city.
D) It helps reduce traffic jams in the city centre.

A) They are usually crowded.
B) They use high-tech systems.
C) They accept smartcards only.
D) They are colourfully decorated.

Section C
Direction: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Recording 1
If you visit the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, chances are you will remember the roadside or campground bears above all else. Bears are the most popular animals in a number of our national parks. In these mountains where the population of bears runs into the hundreds, opportunities to observe these large wild animals are plentiful during the summer. Since national parks are wildlife sanctuaries where no disturbance of the native animals is allowed, years of protection have served to break down the wild bears’ fear of humans. Now, instead of depending on their own resources for a living, many bears patrol park roads and campgrounds. They give the garbage cans a frequent going over. An occasional offer of food from a park visitor and illegal and dangerous practice makes beggars of them. Bears are very often hungry, and since they will feed on almost any kind of plant or animal, garbage is quite acceptable. Feeding them, however, represents misguided kindness because the bears come to expect such generosity from everyone and consequently, trouble could lie ahead. Park rules prohibit the feeding of bears. Violators are arrested. Every year, doctors who have offices near the park treat a number of cases of bear bites and bear scratches. Some of the accidents have come about in strange ways. One man was in the process of feeding two small cubs when the mother bear appeared and insisted upon having some of the food. Shoving the big bear aside with one hand, the man continued feeding the cubs when suddenly he was struck a fierce blow in the face. A bear, prompted by the food that a lady kept offering to him, entered the car where the generous person was sitting. Her efforts to push the bear out of the car resulted in injuries. A man required medical attention after he applied a lighted cigarette to a bear’s nose. Another man tried to boost a bear into the front seat of his car so that he might take a picture of a bear sitting beside his wife who was behind the wheel. Because bears prefer roads and campgrounds, the possibility of a hiker meeting up with a bear along park trails is small, but there’s always that chance, for a bear seems to know if you are carrying a lunch or a candy bar. He may even insist on taking it.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 16: What does the speaker say about the bears in national parks now?
Question 17: What does the speaker say about visitors feeding bears in national parks?
Question 18: What is the speaker’s advice to people who carry some food while hiking on a park trail?

A) They are quite friendly to humans.
B) They are shrinking in numbers.
C) They are unafraid of humans.
D) They are especially fond of garbage.
A) It is strictly forbidden.
B) It is an uncommon sight.
C) It is a gesture of human generosity.
D) It is allowed only in certain areas.

A) Share their food with the bear they see.
B) Be prepared to run into a hungry bear.
C) Try to be friendly with the bear they meet.
D) Refrain from teasing bears with cubs.

Recording 2
Why do we form opinions or attitudes about someone or something without really knowing much about them? Just hearing something good or bad about a person, a place or thing can influence our opinions positively or negatively. But letting the opinions of another person determine what our opinions will be is dangerous. Forming opinions about someone or something before really knowing them well is called prejudice. “Pre-” means before, and “-judice” refers to judgment. Hence, prejudice means to judge before having adequate knowledge. We can be prejudiced toward or against someone or something. In either case, we are only allowing ourselves to see half of the picture. Very few people or things in this world are all good or all bad. Prejudiced attitudes are usually based on myths, half-truths or incorrect information, and they are dangerous because they can keep us from learning the truth about someone or something. People form prejudices against others for many reasons — differences in their race, religion, gender, or occupation. Prejudices keep people apart. They keep us from really knowing and understanding each other. We should feel proud of who we are and the group of people we represent. If feelings of pride begin to turn to feelings of superiority when we think that our group or our beliefs are better than those around us, however, then we begin to develop prejudiced attitudes that can be harmful. For example, the prejudiced attitudes of one group may keep another group from attending certain schools, from living in any neighborhood they want, or from getting a job or a promotion. Extreme feelings of prejudice have caused the deaths of innocent people. We are responsible for our own thoughts and opinions. When we let someone else tell us what to think about someone or something, we are giving up some control of our own lives. Before you form an attitude or opinion, find out for yourself about the person or the thing in question. Sometimes we don’t realize that we hold prejudiced attitudes toward or against someone or something. We need to carefully examine our lives and our fears, and to ask ourselves whether our attitudes come from our personal knowledge and experience or from rumors and fear of the unknown. The good news about prejudice is that we are not born with it. Prejudiced attitudes and opinions develop over time. But with education and knowledge, we can replace our prejudices with cooperation and understanding.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 19: What does the speaker say about prejudice?
Question 20: Why does the speaker say prejudiced attitudes are dangerous?
Question 21: When does the speaker say we begin to develop prejudiced attitudes?

A) It refers to opinions that are radical and widespread.
B) It means making judgments without adequate knowledge.
C) It refers to deep-rooted beliefs about someone or something.
D) It means sticking to one’s judgments even when proved wrong.

A) They often lead to war between religious groups.
B) They keep certain occupations from thriving.
C) They allow myths and half-truths to persist.
D) They prevent us from getting to the truth.

A) When we start to feel superior.
B) When we mix with prejudiced people.
C) When we live in an isolated neighborhood.
D) When we try to keep up with those around us.

Recording 3
When I started high school, it was a shock. I had spent eight years fighting my way to be the most popular kid in the Catholic school student body. I had been a big, tough 8th grader, and suddenly I was a lonely 9th grader bullied by the big, tough 12th grade seniors who ran the high school. I realized then that it’s nice to strive for something, but that you also have to enjoy the moment you’re in and be happy where you are. Rock and roll had always been an important part of my life. I remember my friends and I used to drive around until the late hours of the nights listening to the music of Rock and Roll Legends. During those teenage years, I built friendships that I thought would last a lifetime. Most people that age think the same thing, but people drift apart. Jobs, families and tragedies separate people from those lasting friendships. The tragedy that separated me from my friends forever was the Vietnam War. A year after I graduated from high school, I left for Vietnam. I came back burned out and tired, as though I had lived 10 lifetimes in the short span of 14 months. The 14 months I was in the war. I couldn’t relate to the friends I had had in high school. They still seemed childish, concerned with childish things that weren’t important to me. I was still trying to cope with the death, destruction and evil I had seen in Vietnam. I felt like we had done terrible things to innocent people there, and in turn, I had seen terrible things done to my friends. I withdrew from my friends and started college. Then I quit collage and took many different jobs. I spent a lot of my time and money on alcohol and other drugs. Finally, in an effort to get my life going in the right direction again, I sold everything and took what little money I had and bought myself an airplane ticket to Israel. I went there to study history. While studying at Haifa University, I met my wife, who was also an American student. I now teach in a high school back in America. I look at my students and see them struggling with many of the very things I struggled with many years ago. As a teacher, I try to help them over the rough spots as best I can.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 22: How did the speaker feel when he started high school?
Question 23: What did the speaker once think of teenage friendships?
Question 24: What do we learn about the speaker when he returned from the Vietnam War?
Question 25: What does the speaker try to do as a teacher?

A) Motivated.
B) Disappointed.
C) Perplexed.
D) Shocked.

A) They would change with the passage of time.
B) They would benefit young people’s adult life.
C) They would help kids grow.
D) They would last a lifetime.

A) He had become mature.
B) He suffered poor health.
C) He had lots of stories to tell.
D) He regretted leaving Vietnam.

A) Make friends with his students.
B) Show his students how to do their best.
C) Help his students get through the growing pains.
D) Share his personal experience with his students.