Archive十二月 2022



Section A
Direction: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through the centre.

Conversation 1
W: Mr. David Jackson, a staff writer at the New Yorkcer, is known for his non-fiction books of adventure. Today, we go on a different kind of adventure: Jackson’s life of parenting his offspring. David, as a parent of an 11- and a 14-year-old, what is the most interesting issue you are dealing with right now?
M: It’s easy to focus on the challenges, but so far, I find these ages to be kind of wonderful. They are independent, and they have their own curiosities and obsessions. You can talk to them about fairly sophisticated subject matter such as politics.
W: Yes, that does sound refreshing compared with talking to younger children. Do they ask you to proofread their essays?
M: Certainly, with writing they do. I really just try to be encouraging. I think at this age, editorial guidance is less important than encouragement.
W: Are there books that you think are important that your children read, and that all children read?
M: My general thought is to read widely and to incorporate a love for reading. Learning to love to read, I think, is the optimal thing, because it gives you a skill you can take anywhere.
W: So you’re not too concerned like some parents with the content they’re reading? I know I have some worries about that.
M: Yeah, read what you like. If a child loves graphic novels or comic books, whatever it is, that is turning them on to read and turning on their imagination.
W: I feel that children’s tastes in books change as they reach adolescence. I know that mine certainly did when I was a teenager. What do you think?
M: I think it’s especially important as they get older to read subject matter that’ll open their eyes to the world and people. So I think both fiction and non-fiction are really important because they give you the power to begin to perceive the world through the lives of others.
Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 1: What do we learn about David Jackson from the conversation?
Question 2: What does the man think of young teenagers?
Question 3: How does the man help his kids with their essays?
Question 4: What does the woman say about herself when she was a teenager?

A) He is a staff writer.
B) He is an adventurer.
C) He is an author of fiction.
D) He is a father of four kids.

A) They are interested in fairy tales.
B) They are curious and autonomous.
C) They are a headache to their parents.
D) They are ignorant of politics.

A) He offers them ample editorial guidance.
B) He recommends model essays to them.
C) He gives them encouragement.
D) He teaches them proofreading.

A) Her tastes in books changed.
B) She realized the power of reading.
C) Her reading opened her eyes to the world.
D) She began to perceive the world differently.

Conversation 2
M: In this episode of Money Talks, our guest is Molly Sanders, a university student and a successful young entrepreneur. Molly, tell us about your business.
W: Well, I sell specialty clothes through a website, mainly for women who have trouble finding suitable clothes in main street shops because of their height or weight. But I do some men’s clothes too.
M: How did you get started in this business at such a young age? Are you studying fashion design?
W: Actually, I’m majoring in finance, but I’ve always loved clothes. And I started making my own at 14.
M: Did you have any sort of training in design or sewing? Or was it a natural ability?
W: I’d have to say no to both. No one taught me to make clothes and most of the things I made at first were disasters.
M: Why did you persevere? I think most people would give up if they kept failing, especially at that age.
W: I kept on out of necessity. As you can see, I’m very tall and I couldn’t find clothes that fit me in ordinary shops, so I kept trying and developed my skills over time.
M: Well, my notes say you earned $50,000 in profits last year, an extraordinary amount for a 20- year-old student. How did that happen? Did you see a gap in the market and decide to fill it?
W: No. When I started university, some classmates complimented my clothes. And when I said I made them myself, other tall women started asking if I would make theirs. And I did. And before I knew it, I was an entrepreneur.
M: So what are your plans for the future? Do you intend to open a physical store?
W: No, I’ll keep things online to keep costs down, but I will add more clothes for children, both girls and boys, and possibly even for infants. And I hope to add to my range of designs for men.
Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 5: What do we learn about the woman?
Question 6: What does the woman say about the clothes she made at first?
Question 7: Why did the woman persevere in making clothes for herself?
Question 8: What does the woman plan to do in the future?

A) She is a website designer.
B) She is a university graduate.
C) She is a main street store owner.
D) She is a successful entrepreneur.

A) They were repeatedly rejected by shops.
B) They were popular with her classmates.
C) They showed her natural talent.
D) They were mostly failures.

A) She had a strong interest in doing it.
B) She did not like ready-made clothes.
C) She could not find clothes of her size.
D) She found clothes in shops unaffordable.

A) Study fashion design at college.
B) Improve her marketing strategy.
C) Add designs for women.
D) Expand her business.

Section B
Direction: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Passage 1
Researchers have identified a potent new antibiotic compound using artificial intelligence. The antibiotic can kill very dangerous bacteria. According to a study published in the journal Cell, the compounds successfully removed deadly strains of bacteria in mice which are resistant to all known antibiotics. The researchers say this is the first time that artificial intelligence has been used to find a powerful new antibiotic molecule. Why does this matter? The answer is antibiotic resistance. This happens when bacteria developed the ability to survive the medications designed to kill them. Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to health, and the problem is growing. This makes finding new antibiotics very important. However, in recent decades, very few have been developed. And those that have tend to be very similar to drugs already available. These searches also tend to only focus on a narrow spectrum of chemical compounds. But this is where artificial intelligence comes in. Why? To find new drugs, scientists screen molecules to predict how effective they might be. Typically, such screening is done by humans in the lab, which is both costly and slow. Artificial intelligence is different. It’s fast, and it can process a high volume. It can screen hundreds of millions of compounds to identify a few interesting candidates that require experimental testing. Artificial intelligence is also able to predict if compounds are likely to be toxic. Some experts assert that this work signifies a paradigm shift in antibiotic discovery. It could change drug discovery more generally.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 9: What have researchers done for the first time in history?
Question 10: What makes it important to find new antibiotic drugs?
Question 11: What does the passage say artificial intelligence is able to do in antibiotic research?

A) Utilizing artificial intelligence to find a powerful new antibiotic.
B) Discovering bacteria which are resistant to all known antibiotics.
C) Identifying bacterial strains that are most harmful to human health.
D) Removing a deadly strain of bacteria in humans with a new antibiotic.

A) Ever-increasing strains of bacteria.
B) Bacteria’s resistance to antibiotics.
C) The similarity between known drugs.
D) The growing threat of bacteria to health.

A) Dispense with experimental testing.
B) Predict whether compounds are toxic.
C) Foresee human reaction to antibiotics.
D) Combat bacteria’s resistance to antibiotics.

Passage 2
A recent study overturned what we think we know about lying. Most of us have a theory about how to tell if someone is telling a lie. We may develop that theory from observations of those people we know well and see regularly. But we tend to generalize what we gather from that unscientific daily research and make it a universal theory. So we might imagine that liars have evasive eyes or the opposite, they simply stare at you, or perhaps it is more generally nervous behavior we associate with lies. Whatever the particular theory, it’s usually based on close observation of people we know. And we get lots of practice. On average, we’re lied to some 200 times per day. These are mostly harmless lies, but lies are the lies. But there’s a problem with our theories, even though they’re based on all this observation. The average person, you and me tested rigorously on how well we detect lies fails to do better than chance. That’s well established over many studies and lots of attempts by researchers to work out reliable ways to detect lies. It’s even relatively easy to fool lie detectors, the gold standard of lie detection, by training yourself in breathing techniques and symptom suppression. Is there any way to get better at detecting lies? The new research offers some surprising advice. Stop looking and listen instead. It turns out that if we’re unable to see the face, but rather focus on the voice of the person in question, our accuracy rate improves considerably.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 12: According to the passage, how do most people detect lying?
Question 13: What does the passage say about most lies?
Question 14: What have many studies uncovered about the average person’s lie detection?
Question 15: What advice does the new research offer regarding lie detection?

A) By theorization.
B) By generalization.
C) By observation.
D) By conversation.

A) They are easy to detect.
B) They are well intended.
C) They are groundless.
D) They are harmless.

A) Mostly by chance.
B) Basically objective.
C) Subject to their mental alertness.
D) Dependent on their analytical ability.

A) Looking the speaker in the eye.
B) Listening carefully to the speaker.
C) Measuring the speaker’s breathing rate.
D) Focusing on the speaker’s facial expressions.

Section C
Direction: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Recording 1
Appear to be submissive, humble, grateful, and undemanding, show great pleasure when a doctor comes into your room, even if the visit is brief and useless. Don’t challenge anyone with authority unless you’re famous or very rich. Those are a few strategies for dealing with today’s American medical establishment. What patients want is to be treated with respect and consideration. But in my experience, too few hospitals and doctors are ready to do that. In his book, A Whole New Life, novelist Reynolds Price recalls that his doctors chose a crowded hallway as the place to tell him he might have a tumor on his spinal cord. It did not occur to the two physicians that a hallway was not the most appropriate place for that particular piece of news. My surgeon who is in his mid-30s looks tired. He has been overwhelmed with patients who have fallen on the winter ice. He is a witty man, but sometimes his wit is unwelcome. “The health insurance company, Blue Cross, wants me to put you out in the snow tomorrow afternoon,” he tells me after I have been in the hospital for more than a week. I’m terrified because I have no idea where to go. I can not walk or even lift my leg a few inches. The hospital social worker strikes me as an idiot, but my complaints about her only annoy my surgeon. “I have to work with these people,” he tells my friend, Dr. Karen Brudney, when she mercifully intervenes on my behalf and arranges for me to be transferred to another hospital. “If you say one negative thing, they get defensive,” she tells me later. “They have this kind of institutional loyalty. Always bring in an advocate, that is, any other person with you to the hospital, and write down every single question and the answer, the name of every doctor and nurse. When people know you have their names, they behave better. And,” Brudney adds, “if you, as a patient, suggest that you might like to control even part of the situation or be consulted or informed, then you are considered difficult. They want you to be totally passive. The entire health care system, particularly hospitals and nursing homes, exists for reasons that have nothing to do with taking care of patients. Patients are incidental.”
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 16: What does the speaker say about most American hospitals?
Question 17: What does Karen Brudney suggest patients do?
Question 18: What do American doctors expect their patients to be according to Karen Brudney?

A) They don’t treat patients with due respect.
B) They witness a lot of doctor-patient conflicts.
C) They have to deal with social workers’ strikes.
D) They don’t care how much patients have to pay.

A) Appear submissive and grateful to doctors and nurses.
B) Express a strong desire to be consulted or informed.
C) Refrain from saying anything that sounds negative.
D) Note down the names of all the doctors and nurses.

A) Cooperative.
B) Appreciative.
C) Passive.
D) Responsive.

Recording 2
There are probably teams you’ve worked with that you never want to work with again. But there must have also been other teams that you would prize reuniting with professionally. In other words, your team had vitality. Vitality comes about when the ties people form with their fellow team members are such that they stay connected even after the team breaks up. What characteristics of a team make its members more likely to stay in contact despite no longer working together? This question has been answered recently in a study published in a business journal. One of the two key factors the research team discovered is sameness, specifically sharing the same gender or ethnic origin. The more members of a team share similar demographics, the more inclined they’ll be to remain associates long after the team has served its purpose. After ties are established, similarity strengthens them. As a result, they regard these individuals with greater trust and mutual understanding, which motivates them to seek further opportunities for collaboration. In effect, people tend to create stronger and longer-lasting connections with similar others. Someone who looks and sounds different from us may have the resources we need to be more successful. Yet we find them to be significantly less credible, simply because they are different. If you are a fierce advocate of workplace diversity, you’ll no doubt be horrified by such a revelation. The second factor identified by the researchers is the quality of the relationships among the team members. The more they trust one another, share the same goals, and depend on each other for the achievement of those goals, the stronger their chances of maintaining their connections, despite no longer working as one team. Teams with quality relationships have a shared belief that it’s safe to take risks with each other, and members are obliged to share the workload and help out. From personal experience, I can see both the truth and the inconsistency of such studies. The truth is some of my closest friendships were formed as a result of having worked together on teams. And I actively seek opportunities to work with them again. The inconsistency, though, is that I’ve never worked for a team more successful and cohesive than the one of which I’m a member right now. And yet the four of us have very little in common and are completely different demographically. So I’m unlikely to question the value of a diverse workforce.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 19: What does the speakers say about a team with vitality?
Question 20: What do the researchers find out about members of a team?
Question 21: What do we learn about the team the speaker is currently working in?

A) Its members work together despite risks of failure.
B) It prioritizes recruiting young energetic members.
C) Its members stay in touch even after it breaks up.
D) It grows more and more mature professionally.

A) Their differences are likely to impact productivity.
B) Their similarity is conducive to future collaboration.
C) Their connections strengthen with the passage of time.
D) Their mutual understanding stems from a common goal.

A) It is characterized by diversity.
B) Its goals are quite inconsistent.
C) Its members have similar backgrounds.
D) It is connected by a unique mechanism.

Recording 3
An American researcher who studied 600 millionaires found how rich you can get comes down to six wealth factors. She found that six behaviors are related to net worth potential, regardless of age or income. These were thriftiness, confidence, responsibility, planning, focus and social indifference. Being thrifty comes as no great surprise. Spending above your means, spending instead of saving for retirement, spending in anticipation of becoming wealthy, makes you a slave to the paycheck. “Even with an astronomical level of income,” she wrote, “to properly build wealth, experts recommend saving 20% of your income and living off the remaining 80%.” Having confidence is another key characteristic, as it helps people to be thrifty. It takes confidence to live within your means. It also takes confidence to invest properly, instead of making investing decisions with your emotions. Financial planners advise that you should leave your investments alone and focus on a long-term investment plan. But people can’t invest or manage their own money without accepting responsibility for the outcomes. Many millionaires take on personal responsibility, and most also happen to be self-made, meaning they didn’t acquire their wealth through luck. Millionaires don’t count on anyone else to make them rich, and they don’t blame anyone else if they fall short. They focus on things they can control and align their daily habits to the goals they have set for themselves. They tend to be goal-oriented and hard workers which enables them to plan financially and focus on seeing those plans through. 92% of the millionaires surveyed developed a long-term plan for their money and 97% almost always achieved the goals they set for themselves. And it is these behaviors that make it easy for them to be socially indifferent. They resist lifestyle creep, the tendency to spend more whenever one earns more. Essentially, they don’t yield to pressure to buy the latest thing or to keep up with others or what they have acquired. Instead of being focused on what might make them happy today, they’re focused on their long-term wealth building plan.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 22: What do experts recommend concerning being thrifty?
Question 23: How does confidence help people to be thrifty?
Question 24: How do millionaires react when they fail in their investment?
Question 25: Why does the speaker say millionaires are socially indifferent?

A) Putting aside twenty percent of one’s earnings.
B) Spending in anticipation of becoming wealthy.
C) Living off a small proportion of one’s income.
D) Saving as much as one can possibly manage.

A) It empowers them to cope with irrational emotions.
B) It will guarantee the profits from their investments.
C) It will turn them into successful financial planners.
D) It enables them to focus on long-term investments.

A) They count on others to take the responsibility.
B) They change their investment strategy in time.
C) They think they themselves are to blame.
D) They persist rather than get discouraged.

A) They do not resist novel lifestyles.
B) They do not try to keep up with others.
C) They do not care what they have acquired.
D) They do not pressure themselves to get rich.




Section A
Direction: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through the centre.

Conversation 1
M: Welcome to money matters, a weekly program that helps you manage your money. Tonight, I’ll be talking to Marry Johnson about budgeting.
W: Hello everyone.
M: There’s a magic about money. When it’s not planned for tracked, kept a record of, it literally disappears. What are some of the steps we can take to prevent this from happening?
W: Well, it’s all about keeping track of your money. If you don’t do that, you’ll never be able to set any goals for your budget or have the discipline to stick to them.
M: That’s easier said than done. I read recently that only 41% of Americans adhere to a budget.
W: Yes, but knowing what you earn and what you spend can give you reassurance that you won’t get into debt in the first place. You can do this by adding up all of your sources of income you have and writing them all down on a piece of paper. On the same page, write down all of your monthly expenses.
M: I’m always amazed at how much my expenses add up, but designating each item as an income or an expense, really helps me have a much better sense of all my spending.
W: Right, most people have no idea how much they spend each day, let alone each week or month, no matter how careful they are. Next, subtract your monthly expenses from income. If the result is positive, you are living within your means. If the result is a negative number, you’re going to have to cut back on your spending.
M: I’m usually a negative number. I just can’t resist the allure of all those prestigious goods.
W: Well, It’s not a catastrophe, but you do have to make some changes. Try cutting back on those non-essential items, sell some stuff in your attic or shop online to avoid unnecessary temptations like chocolate. Failing that you can always find yourself a part time job.
Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 1: What does the man say about the weekly program?
Question 2: What did the man read recently?
Question 3: What does the woman suggest the man do first to avoid getting into debt?
Question 4: What does the woman say about online shopping?

A) It enables people to earn more money.
B) It teaches the importance of financing.
C) It helps people with budgeting.
D) It introduces a novel way to invest.

A) Many Americans are not satisfied with their income.
B) Many Americans have no idea about how to invest.
C) Most Americans do not know how to save money.
D) Most Americans do not stick to a budget.

A) Keep track of his money.
B) Live within his means.
C) Find more sources of income.
D) Refrain from buying luxuries.

A) It offers a greater variety of items.
B) It helps avoid unnecessary spending.
C) It changes one’s way of living.
D) It saves one’s time for shopping.

Conversation 2
M: Hi there, I’ve come to see the flat. My name is Mark Adams. We spoke on the phone on wednesday.
W: Hi Mark, come on up. I’ll buzz you in, green door on the second floor on the right side. Nice to meet you. I spoke to all your references and they all checked out Ok. So let me show you around. The place actually belongs to my mother, but her health isn’t great. We finally managed to persuade her to move in with us and rent this old place out.
M: It’s a great size, plenty of space, very versatile. I think it’s a winner for us.
W: Yes, all the appliances are brand new. There’s a washing machine and a tumble drier in the utility room next to the kitchen.
M: Lots of closet space too, which is fabulous. My wife has a ridiculous number of shoes.Now, the big question, what about noise and the neighbors?
W: Well, all the neighbors are elderly, so no noisy kids and the back of the house overlooks a clear and peaceful pond, so it’s perfect if tranquility is what you are looking for.
M: That’s good news. We’ve been living in a less than glamorous part of Aberdeen, constantly harassed day and night by noisy neighbors. Getting to work was a nightmare too, as we only have one car and my wife has to use it as she works nights at the hospital.
W: Well, if you like the place, it’s yours as soon as I get a contract drawn up with the solicitor, the first month’s rent and a deposit are mandatory on signing the contract, then we can work out when is the best day for you to pay rent each month.
M: We’ll be incredibly happy to be your new tenants. Thank you so much. My wife will be thrilled to get out of the shabby place we are now in and start filling those wardrobes with all those shoes.
Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 5: What does the woman say about the flat?
Question 6: What is the man’s chief consideration and looking for a flat?
Question 7: What does the man have to do on signing the contract?
Question 8. Why does the man say his wife will feel very excited if they move into the flat?

A) It is brand-new.
B) It has plenty of rooms.
C) It belongs to her mother.
D) It has been vacant for months.

A) Space.
B) Tranquility.
C) Appliances.
D) Location.

A) Talk to his wife about the contract terms.
B) Pay the first month’s rent and a deposit.
C) Check the references of the flat owner.
D) Consult his solicitor one more time.

A) She can have a wonderful view of the pond.
B) She will be much closer to her work place.
C) She can make friends with new neighbours.
D) She will have plenty of space for her shoes.

Section B
Direction: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Passage 1
A new study has found a positive correlation between how much television children watch and their parents stresss levels. Why? Because the more television kids watch, the more they are exposed to advertising. The more advertising they see, the more likely they are to insist on purchasing items when they go with their parents to the store. This could generate conflict if the parents refuse. All that, researchers say, can contribute to parents’ overall stress levels. What’s the solution? Perhaps the most obvious is curtailing screen time. Commercial content is therefore a reason to elicit purchasing behavior. So, parents might want to shut off the TV. Researchers concede that this is easier said than done, so they suggest another option. Parents can change how they talk to their kids about purchases. The researchers suggest that parents seek input from their children on family purchasing decisions. They shouldn’t try to control all purchases. Instead, parents might tell their children things like “I will listen to your advice on certain products or brands”. This type of communication, the researchers assert, can lead to children making fewer purchasing demands that means less parents’ stress. However, the protective effect of this kind of communication diminishes with greater exposure to television. This is because advertising aimed at children is especially persuasive. Advertisers use an assortment of tactics such as bright colors, happy music and celebrity endorsements to appeal to children. Plus, children don’t have the cognitive ability to fully understand advertising’s intent. That makes them particularly vulnerable to advertisements.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 9: What has the new study found about children watching television?
Question 10: What are parents advised to do to reduce the impact of TV commercials?
Question 11: What makes children particularly vulnerable to TV commercials?

A) The more commercials they see, the more brands they get to know.
B) The more commercials they see, the more they adore celebrities.
C) The more television they watch, the fewer conflicts in the family.
D) The more television they watch, the greater their parents’ stress.

A) Inform children of the family’s financial situation.
B) Shift children’s attention to interesting activities.
C) Involve children in making purchasing decisions.
D) Help children understand advertising’s intent.

A) Their limited cognitive ability.
B) Their strong natural curiosity.
C) Their admiration for celebrities.
D) Their lack of social experience.

Passage 2
Everyone is supposed to cheer for good guys, and we should only punish the bad guys. But that’s not what we always do. Most of the time, we do indeed reward good people. We also often punish people who harm others, or who aren’t good team players. But sometimes the good guys also get punished or criticized specifically because they are so good. This seems baffling because it’s detrimental to group cooperation. However, the phenomenon has been discovered in multiple fields, and it has been found in every society. Why does this happen? Research suggests a simple reason. When one person looks really good, others look bad by comparison. Those others then have an incentive in stopping that person from looking good, especially if they can’t or won’t compete. After all, we’re all judged in comparison with others. When faced with someone better, what can a normal person do? One option is to actively compete. A second option is to bring that person down. That is to suppress their cooperation or work ethic, infer selfish motives for their actions, or imply real or imagine hypocrisy. Other tactics include attacking them on unrelated dimensions or punishing them outright. Why does this matter? Critics often attack the motives of people who protect the environment, donate money, or work too hard. Such good deeds are dismissed as naive or hypocritical by those who do not perform those deeds. This criticism may ultimately discourage people from doing good deeds. So it’s important to recognize these attacks for what they are.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 12: What baffling phenomenon is discussed in the passage?
Question 13: How are we all judged according to the passage?
Question 14: What can a normal person do when faced with people who perform better?
Question 15: What may discourage people from performing good deeds?

A) Bad guys may do good deeds.
B) Bad guys may go unpunished.
C) Good guys may not always cooperate.
D) Good guys may get unfair treatment.

A) By what we do.
B) By fair evaluation.
C) In comparison with others.
D) In accordance with set standards.

A) Learn from them earnestly.
B) Compete with them actively.
C) Leave them alone temporarily.
D) Cooperate with them sincerely.

A) Being dismissed as hypocritical.
B) Not getting the reward they deserve.
C) Having to make too many sacrifices.
D) Being misunderstood by people around.

Section C
Direction: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Recording 1
In America, most researchers concede that boys and girls are brought up in different ways, taught different skills and rewarded for different acts. Women, it is agreed excel at certain tasks, men at others. There is little argument that some personality traits appear more dominant in one sex than in the other. All of this not withstanding, gender differences are very much in the media these days. Since the rise of the women’s movement, gender role behavior has come under closer scrutiny. How has this affected friendship? How do the sexes differ in their friendship relations? Most preteen children have a best friend who is usually some one of the same sex and similar age. Both sexes share an essentially positive recollection of these childhood friendships. They do not differ in this respect. However, the type of play engaged in during these early friendships is telling of the difference to come. Boys tend to form playgroups that are competitive in nature. Girls groups more frequently revolve around cooperative enterprises. Thus at an early age, boys become concerned with trying hard and winning. While girls by contrast, playhouse and school, engaging in roles that require complementary support. Speaking of their childhood, men recall being highly responsive to and aware of the gender role opinions of other boys. Girls in preteen years appear to be less susceptible to gender role pressure. It is not until the dating years that women report being concerned with feminine behavior. Males for the most part, are responsive to the suggestion that their behavior is unmanly at almost any age. These early attitudes reinforced by social conditioning continue to play an active part in the friendships of both sexes during adolescence. This is a period when the majority of males, once again, report a close alliance with same sex friends. Now, however, with heightened intensity, considerable energy is devoted to competing for position and a definite undercurrent of competition permeates the relationship. Although in dissimilar fashion, females share equally fragile relationships at this age. For them, the bond of loyalty extends only to the line of romantic involvement. This is most apt to be the case in late adolescence when dating and relationships with boys take sharp precedence over sisterhood. Actually dating dilutes the intensity of same sex friendships for men also. For the majority of us the moment we begin to date seriously, there’s a competition between romance and friendship.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 16: What does the speaker say about most preteen children?
Question 17: What do most males devote much of their energy to during adolescence?
Question 18: What do children do when they reach late adolescence?

A) They are increasingly aware of gender differences.
B) They engage themselves in positive recollection.
C) They begin to see the importance of friendship.
D) They make friends with peers of the same sex.

A) Competing for position.
B) Pursuing fashion.
C) Forging close ties with friends.
D) Fulfilling family obligations.

A) They prioritize romance over friendship.
B) They try to strengthen same-sex friendships.
C) They begin to take friendship more seriously.
D) They compete intensely for romantic partners.

Recording 2
Good afternoon. Today’s lecture, we’ll be talking about how and when to disclose a disability when applying for a job. On average, about 20% of the population has some form of disability. Most countries these days have equal opportunity and non-discrimination laws, yet disabled people often find it hard to decide when, how, and if at all, to raise their disability problem with a potential employer. There is uncertainty about how a recruiter will perceive their disability. As such many candidates fear they wouldn’t be considered for a position as a result of disclosing this personal information. And research has validated this as a genuine concern for many job applicants. It’s a natural reaction, but it shouldn’t be a reason to stay quiet. People need to remember that they are applying for a position they have the skills and experience to excel in. Discussing a disability with potential employer may help them make reasonable workplace adjustments in their favor. It’s most appropriate to discuss a disability when they reply to confirm an interview, this information needn’t be put up front in their cover letter or resume, because it’s probably not relevant to the position itself. Candidates with disabilities should feel they have the power to make their own decisions around sharing this information free from prejudice. If they find an organization that doesn’t celebrate diversity and inclusion, it could say a lot about the company’s culture, perhaps the organization isn’t the right fit. It’s important for them to remember that they are seeking a manager and employer that’s going to be supportive and continue to give them a great employment experience. Companies sometimes offer candidates the chance to disclose disabilities on their application form, but people shouldn’t feel restricted by this method or timing. People should avoid sharing the name of their disability or condition. There is always the risk that the recruiter will research information that is inaccurate or irrelevant. If people don’t think their disability will impact their ability to perform in the advertised position, then it’s entirely their entitlement to choose when and whether to share this information.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 19: Why do disable job applicants feel reluctant to disclose their disability?
Question 20: When does the speaker suggest applicants reveal their disability information?
Question 21: What are people advised to do when filling out their job application form?

A) They regard it as a matter of sheer privacy.
B) They are worried about being turned down.
C) They fear that their condition will be made widely known.
D) They are afraid to be discriminated against once recruited.

A) After receiving a job offer.
B) During a job interview.
C) When confirming an interview.
D) Upon completing a cover letter.

A) Describe the true state of their health.
B) Provide all the information required.
C) Stress the irrelevance of their disability to the job.
D) Avoid mentioning the name of their disability.

Recording 3
Smartphones distract attention and reduce learning because of their potential to offer activities more inviting than study. But what about background sound alone? A group of American researchers compared students’ comprehension of verbal material when reading in the presence of background speech, instrumental music or general noise. General noise is neutral, such as that from the sound of an air conditioner or fan. Students scores were most depressed in the presence of background speech. Comprehension was slightly better with the presence of music than with speech. However, when they were asked to identify melodies rather than understand text, background music interfered more. When the background speech was in a language unfamiliar to participants, there was little if any hindrance of reading comprehension. British researchers compared the effects of background speech, vocal music, instrumental music, general background noise, and silence on short term memory. Background speech had the biggest negative effect. Vocal music was slightly more disruptive than instrumental. In general background noise and silence were least disruptive. It seems the degree of interference from background noise depends on the overlap between the processing required on the task, and the processing required to screen out the background noise. The studies suggest that when people read and when they try to remember any verbal material, background speech will inhibit their ability. Instrumental music will have at worst a slight effect. When students write essays, however, other research has found it is best to reduce all background noise as much as possible. Not everyone reacts in the same way to distractions. Other studies suggest some aspects of personality may make a difference. The researchers subjected shy, quiet people and confident, outgoing ones to high arousal or low arousal background music, general noise or silence while asking them to remember words. Everyone performed best in the silent condition, but less sociable people were more negatively affected by each of the distractions. So when children are reading and trying to incorporate new material, parents could consider allowing some background music, particularly if it is instrumental, and their child is the outgoing type.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Question 22: What did some American researchers find about students reading comprehension in the presence of background noise?
Question 23: What do we learn from the British researchers about the degree of interference from background noise?
Question 24: What is best for students to do when writing essays according to some research?
Question 25: How do people of different personalities react to distractions according to other studies?

A) Their scores were least affected by music with speech.
B) It was the poorest when there was background speech.
C) Their scores were most depressed with instrumental music.
D) It was disrupted by the sound of an air conditioner or fan.

A) It has to do with the type and volume of the background noise.
B) It has to do with short-term memory for listening comprehension.
C) It depends on the overlap in processing different kinds of information.
D) It depends on the participants’ ability to concentrate on the task at hand.

A) Keep everything as quiet as possible.
B) Play nothing but instrumental music.
C) Use vocal material as little as possible.
D) Wear a pair of earphones or headphones.

A) Sociable people were immune to all distractions.
B) Shy quiet people were most adversely impacted.
C) Less outgoing people were more affected by silence.
D) Confident people were unaffected by high-arousal music.




Section A
Direction: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

News Report 1
A new study finds that beverages containing added sugar might be harmful. In the study, researchers analyzed information from over 80,000 women and 37,000 men. Participants worked in the health profession. They were followed for approximately three decades. They completed surveys about their diet every four years. They also answered questions about sleep and exercise and health every two years. The more beverages containing added sugar that people drink, the greater their risk of death was during the study period. These beverages included soda, energy drinks and sports drinks. Beverages like pure fruit juice, which are sweet but do not contain added sugar, were not part of the study. The findings held even after the researchers considered other factors that could affect people’s health. These factors included lack of exercise and not eating enough vegetables. They also included consuming too much meat. The scientists say that their results support limiting beverages with added sugar. They argue we should replace them with other drinks, with water being the best choice. However, the researchers admit this is simply their recommendation. The study found only an association: It did not prove that drinks with added sugar cause early death.
Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 1: What do we learn about the new study from the news report?
Question 2: What is the scientists’ recommendation?

A) It studied the effects of exercise on sleep.
B) Its participants came from various walks of life.
C) Its findings confirmed those of previous studies.
D) It ran for as long as some thirty years.

A) Eating more vegetables instead of meats.
B) Drinking water instead of beverages with added sugar.
C) Consuming more energy drinks and sports drinks.
D) Forming the habit of exercising regularly.

News Report 2
German police appealed Friday for information about the possible owners of two 17th-century oil paintings. Police said a 64-year-old man found the paintings in a garbage pile at a highway rest stop last month. He later handed them in to the Cologne Police. An initial assessment by an art expert concluded the two framed paintings were originals, police said. One is a landscape painted by the Italian artist Pietro Bellotti, dating to 1665. The other is a painting of a boy by the 17th-century Dutch artist Samuel van Hoogstraten, date unknown. Their combined worth is estimated to be around one million euros. Authorities have not yet confirmed what will happen if the rightful owner is not found. Nevertheless, it is speculated that they could either be handed over to the National Art Museum of Cologne or sold to the public by the local government.
Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 3: What did German police say about a 64-year-old man?
Question 4: What is the art expert’s conclusion about the two framed paintings?

A) He asked them about his lost paintings.
B) He knew the owner of two missing paintings.
C) He left his paintings at a highway rest stop.
D) He found two 17th-century oil paintings.

A) They are imitations.
B) They are originals.
C) They were stolen by an Italian boy.
D) They came from the same artist.

News Report 3
A four-year-old girl has walked eight kilometres through a snowy forest to seek help for her sick grandmother, who later died of a heart attack. The young girl braved the threat of bears, wolves and temperatures far below freezing. She made the journey through a remote region in Siberia after waking up to find her grandmother motionless. Named locally as Carla, she lives alone with her elderly grandmother and her blind grandfather. As a result, the girl’s mother is facing a criminal case. She stands accused of leaving a minor in danger, in the care of the elderly. She also faces investigation from childcare services, who will also be asking why Carla was left alone with her vulnerable relatives. The journey took place in February when temperatures average -26℃. Russian reports on social media suggest the forest may have been as cold as -34℃. The journey was only recently confirmed by authorities. But though she was suffering from the effects of extreme cold, the child reportedly suffered no life-threatening effects. Last year, a three-year-old boy survived alone for three days in a remote forest in the same region.
Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.
Question 5: What did the four-year-old girl attempt to do?
Question 6: What do we learn from the news report about the girl’s mother?
Question 7: What happened to the little girl according to the news report?

A) Look after her grandfather.
B) Leave the remote cold region.
C) Save her sick grandmother.
D) Flee from the threat of bears.

A) She has to face a criminal charge.
B) She was found lying motionless in the snow.
C) She searched for her daughter in freezing cold.
D) She works in childcare services.

A) She was found in a forest after three days.
B) She lay totally unconscious for three days.
C) She suffered from the effects of severe cold.
D) She was finally rescued by her relatives.

Section B
Direction: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Conversation 1
W: I’ve made a new friend recently. Her name is Susan, and she’s from South Africa.
M: How did you meet her?
W: We met over Wechat. She has very cool photos on her social media. The photos of her hometown look amazing.
M: What’s her hometown called?
W: It’s called Cape Town. It’s in the southwest of South Africa. She says it’s very green and windy. The city was built by European settlers, and there’s a big mountain that overlooks the city. The mountain is called Table Mountain because it’s flat at the top.
M: That sounds interesting. What are the people there like?
W: Well, Susan says South Africa is very mixed. There are black people and white people and Indian people. Susan is white. She says her ancestors were from Britain. Many languages are spoken in South Africa, but she only speaks English.
M: Didn’t South Africa host the Football World Cup a few years ago? They must play football a lot then, right?
W: I think they play football, but it’s not as popular as rugby.
M: Rugby? What’s rugby?
M: Rugby is a sport with two teams, and the players carry the ball in their arms and throw it at each other. The ball is not round, and the players push each other. I don’t really understand the rules. I think it’s very complicated.
M: That sounds like a very strange sport indeed. Is it only South Africa that plays it?
W: No, it’s also popular in Britain and in other former British colonies, like Australia and New Zealand.
Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 8: What does the woman say about her new friend Susan?
Question 9: What does the woman say about Table Mountain?
Question 10: What do we learn from the conversation about the woman’s friend, Susan?
Question 11: What does the woman say about rugby in South Africa?

A) She shows a real passion for taking photos.
B) She has just returned from her hometown.
C) She comes from the city of Cape Town.
D) She has a truly amazing appearance.

A) It is as famous as Cape Town.
B) It has a flat surface at the top.
C) It is green and free from pollution.
D) It was named by European settlers.

A) She has British ancestors.
B) She is of mixed blood.
C) She grew up in India.
D) She speaks several languages.

A) It is an extremely violent sport.
B) It is becoming a national sport.
C) It is originated in New Zealand.
D) It is more popular than football.

Conversation 2
M: Hi Jennifer. I’m really struggling with this semester’s workload. Do you have any advice?
W: Have you considered making a study guide? It’s a tool you can make yourself to take the stress out of studying. I’ve been using one since the start of last semester’s and it has really helped relieve a lot of study pressure.
M: Sounds like just what I need. My main problem is that my study folder is full of notes and worksheets and is badly disorganized. I don’t know where to start.
W: Okay. Well, the main thing is to have everything in the right place. Whatever you are reviewing it’s important that it’s arranged for your particular needs of that subject and in the most user-friendly way you can. What kind of learner are you?
M: Hmm… I’m not sure.
W: Well, visual learners prefer using images, pictures, colors and maps to organize information. Logical learners have a linear mind, and would rather use logic, reasoning and systems. I’m an emotional learner, which means I need to connect to information emotionally to understand it.
M: Oh, I’m very much dependent on vision as a way of taking in information.
W: Well, I suggest reorganizing your notes using color-coded sections in your study guides, or using idea mapping to lay out the information and make it more quickly accessible.
M: So you think I should arrange my notes using color and pictures in place of text.
W: Yes, you’ll probably start to grasp information a lot quicker that way. As an emotional learner, I organize my notes into a story that I can connect to and recite to myself.
M: That’s amazing. I didn’t know there were so many different ways to learn.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Question 12: What does the woman advise the man do?
Question 13: What is the biggest problem the man has with his studies?
Question 14: What kind of learner does the woman say she is?
Question 15: What does the woman think the man can do with his notes?

A) Prepare a study guide.
B) Consult his advisors.
C) Go over his notes regularly.
D) Take stress-relief sessions.

A) His worksheets are terribly messy.
B) He finds the workload too heavy.
C) His study folder is badly disorganized.
D) He has difficulty taking notes quickly.

A) A visual learner.
B) An emotional learner.
C) An organized learner.
D) A logical learner.

A) Arrange them using color and pictures.
B) Restructure them in a logical way.
C) Commit them to memory after class.
D) Organize them into a well-connected story.

Section C
Direction: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Passage 1
The golden rule is a moral principle, which states that you should treat others the way you want to be treated yourself. For example, if you want people to treat you with respect, you should treat them with respect. Different people tend to be exposed to different forms of the golden rule, based on factors such as the religion in their society. However, all forms of the golden rule revolve around the same concept. Namely, they help you treat others better, by using the way you yourself would want to be treated as a guide of how to behave. A notable criticism of the golden rule is that its application can lead to undesirable outcomes when it conflicts with laws and ethical principles. For example, if someone breaks the law, the golden rule would suggest that we should let them go, because we would not want to be punished ourselves. However, this issue with the golden rule can be dealt with in a general manner, by viewing this principle as one of several principles that we use to guide our behavior as individuals and as a society. Specifically, in the example described above, most individuals and societies choose to place laws and ethical principles above the golden rule. This means that they strive to implement the golden rule whenever possible, as long as it doesn’t clash with a more important concept.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 16: What do we learn from the passage about the golden rule?
Question 17: What is a notable criticism of the golden rule?
Question 18: What does the example of someone breaking the law serve to show?

A) It is mainly based on a society’s religion.
B) It is interpreted differently in different times.
C) It is a code of conduct based on laws and ethics.
D) It is a moral principle to guide people’s behavior.

A) It may lead to misunderstanding despite good intentions.
B) It assumes that human beings are all good-natured.
C) It may sometimes produce undesirable outcomes.
D) It fails to consider the complexity of human relationships.

A) The golden rule is often in conflict with certain laws and ethical principles.
B) The golden rule must sometimes give way to more important principles.
C) Failure to follow the golden rule may lead to violation of laws and ethics.
D) Observing the golden rule is the first step to becoming a responsible citizen.

Passage 2
Today, many large corporations stress the importance of diversity on their websites, but current statistics show that the typical manager in America still tends to be white and male. Obviously, the desire to bring about diversity has not translated into corporate reality. Why is this? A team of researchers from the University of Basel published their new study about people’s attitudes towards diversity at work. They found that people have a wide range of opinions concerning diversity. On the one hand, many see value in diversity, which can contribute a variety of perspectives encourage new ideas and generate innovative solutions. On the other hand, they assume that it might be difficult to work with someone who has completely different views, speaks a different language, or has a different style of work. The actual value they attribute to diversity depends on the decision-making perspective. Doubts about the practicability of diversity have a greater weight if a person is directly affected. In other words, when a person’s own work group is involved, they tend to prefer team members who are similar to themselves. But when people make decisions for others, they typically put together a more diverse team. These findings could help organizations become more diverse. Companies need to pay attention to who makes hiring and team decisions. These decisions should not only be made by those directly affected. People who are not directly involved in the group’s daily work should also take part.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 19: What do we learn from the current statistics about diversity in large corporations?
Question 20: What is the newly published study focused on?
Question 21: What do the findings of the new study show?

A) Many of them find it rather difficult to manage.
B) They have not seen as much diversity as desired.
C) Many of them have an increasingly diversified staff.
D) They have not quite grasped the concept of diversity.

A) Initiatives to achieve diversity in large corporations.
B) Advantages and disadvantages of a diversified team.
C) People’s attitudes towards diversity at the workplace.
D) Innovative ideas and solutions resulting from diversity.

A) People prefer to work with team members similar to themselves.
B) Employers attach great importance to their corporations’s diversity.
C) Employers differ, from employees in their perspectives on diversity.
D) Doubts about the practicability of diversity are gradually disappearing.

Passage 3
Communication can essentially be divided into two categories: the written and the spoken. How the balance is struck between these two forms of communication — the point at which one needs to be exchanged for another — really depends on individual cultures. Understanding when it’s appropriate to exchange one form for another can be a major key to success in international business. Many cultures place a much greater value on the spoken word than the American working culture does. In parts of the Middle East, you’ll find spoken word agreements are seen as seriously binding. A person’s word is linked to their honor, so verbal agreements are seen as important, whereas written contracts are taken as memos of understanding. Western working culture tends to place a high value on the written word, and this reaches its highest level of intensity when it comes to contracts. In the US, France and Germany, written contracts tend to be seen as something that must be strictly carried out. By contrast, other cultures may not see written contracts as quite so binding, it can prove a challenge to Western businesses if your business partner wants to renegotiate terms that you thought were already agreed on. For example, a Japanese firm may have signed a contract, but they may not feel bound by every detail of it — particularly if circumstances later change. Such differences in value that different working cultures place on the written word tend to cause many problems when it comes to business relationships.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 22: What is a major key to success in international business according to the passage?
Question 23: What does the passage say about spoken word agreements in some Middle East countries?
Question 24: What do we learn about the Western working culture?
Question 25: How does a Japanese firm tend to view a written contract?

A) Choosing the best time for signing a business contract.
B) Changing one’s form of communication from time to time.
C) Laying equal stress on written and spoken communication.
D) Using different forms of communication appropriately.

A) They are regarded as seriously binding.
B) They are seldom honored by business partners.
C) They are taken as memos of understanding.
D) They are to be confirmed in written form.

A) It has reached the highest level of evolution.
B) It places a high value on written contracts.
C) It regards written contracts as unalterable.
D) It has seen a decline in verbal agreements.

A) Its details cannot be renegotiated.
B) It has to be carried out to the letter.
C) It strengthens business partnerships.
D) Its terms may not be strictly binding.